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TheRecolonization of Latin America and the War on Venezuela

拉美的再殖民化以及对委内瑞拉战争



“The WesternHemisphere is our Region” Michael Pompeo, US Secretary of State

美国国务卿迈克尔•蓬佩奥表示:“西半球是我们的地盘?!?br />
Introduction
Not since the US pronounced the Monroe Doctrine proclaiming itsimperial supremacy over Latin America, nearly 200 years ago, has a White Houseregime so openly affirmed its mission to recolonize Latin America.

简介
近200年前,美国宣布了门罗主义,宣示其对拉美的霸权。自那以来还没有哪一个白宫政权如此公开肯定地表示其重新殖民拉美的意图。

The second decade of the 21st century haswitnessed, in word and deed, the most thorough and successful US recolonizationof Latin America, and its active and overt role as colonial sepoys of animperial power.

在21世纪第二个十年里,美国在舆论和行动上对拉美进行了最彻底、最成功的再殖民,拉美也积极公开地扮演着殖民帝国阴影下的傀儡角色。



The recolonization process sufferedsevere setbacks in some regions and nations with the onset of the GreatDepression which undermined the US military and economic presence andfacilitated the rise of powerful nationalist regimes and movements in particularin Argentina, Brazil, Chile Nicaragua and Cuba.

随着大萧条的爆发,重新殖民进程在一些地区和国家遭受了严重挫折。大萧条削弱了美国的军事和经济存在,并促进了拉美民族主义政权和独立运动的崛起,特别是阿根廷、巴西、智利、尼加拉瓜和古巴。

The process of ‘decolonization’ led to,and included, the nationalization of US oil fields, sugar and mining sectors; ashift in foreign policy toward relatively greater independence; and labor lawswhich increased workers’ rights and leftwing unionization.

“非殖民化”进程导致并包括对美国油田、糖业和采矿业的国有化;外交政策转向相对独立;以及增加工人权利和通过受左翼工会影响的劳动法。

The US victory in World War II and itseconomic supremacy led Washington to re-assert its colonial rule in the WesternHemisphere. The Latin American regimes lined up with Washington in the Cold andHot wars, backing the US wars against China, Korea, Vietnam and theconfrontation against the USSR and Eastern Europe.

美国在第二次世界大战中取得的胜利及其在经济上的霸权地位,促使华盛顿在西半球重新确立了其殖民统治。拉美政权在冷战和热战中与美国结盟,支持美国对中国、朝鲜、越南的战争,以及对苏联和东欧的对抗。

For Washington, working through itscolonized dictatorial regimes, invaded every sector of the economy, especiallyagro-minerals; it proceeded to dominate markets and sought to impose colonizedtrade unions run by the imperial-centered AFL-CIO.

华盛顿通过其殖民独裁政策,侵入了拉美国家经济的每一个部门,特别是农业矿产;它开始主导地区市场,并试图强制推行由以美国为中心的劳工总会与产业劳工组织。



The recolonization process advanced,throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s, under the auspices of newly imposed militaryregimes and the new ‘neo-liberal’ free-market doctrine.

在新强加的军事政权和“新自由主义”自由市场学说的支持下,重新殖民进程在整个七八十年代不断推进。

Once again recolonization led to highlypolarized societies in which the domestic colonized elites were a distinctminority. Moreover, the colonial economic doctrine allowed the US banks andinvestors to plunder the Latin countries, impose out- of -control debt burdens,de-industrialization of the economies, severe increases in unemployment and aprecipitous decline in living standards.

再殖民化导致了社会高度分化,在这种社会中国内被殖民的精英是一个明显的少数群体。此外,殖民主义经济学说允许美国银行和投资者掠夺拉丁国家,强加了债务负担失控的风险,使经济去工业化,失业率大幅上升,生活水平急剧下降。

By the early years of the 21st century,deepening colonization led to an economic crisis and the resurgence of massmovements and new waves of nationalist-popular movements which sought toreverse – at least in part – the colonial relationship and structures.

到21世纪初,殖民加深导致了一场经济?;腿褐谠硕葱艘约靶旅褡逯饕遽绕? -人民运动浪潮,这些运动寻求扭转-,至少部分扭转殖民关系和结构。



The Recolonization of Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, and theLima Pact Against Venezuela

拉美的再殖民:巴西、阿根廷和对抗委内瑞拉的利马条约

Asthe first decade of the 21st century unfolded numerous Latin Americangovernments and movements began the process of decolonization, displacing USclient regimes, taking the lead in regional organizations, diversifying theirmarkets and trading partners.

21世纪第一个十年许多拉美国家政府和组织开始了非殖民化进程,取代了美国的附庸国政权,开始在区域组织中发挥领导作用,使其市场和贸易伙伴多样化。

Nevertheless, the leaders and partieswere incapable and unwilling to break with local elites tied to the UScolonization project.

然而,这些领导人和政党没有能力也不愿与与美国殖民计划有关的当地精英决裂。

Vulnerable to downward movements incommodity prices, composed of heterogeneous political alliances and unable tocreate or deepen anti-colonial culture, the US moved to reconstruct itscolonial project.

由于受到大宗商品价格下跌的影响,加之由不同政治联盟构成且无法创造或深化反殖民文化,美国开始重建其殖民计划。

The US struck first at the ‘weakest link’of the decolonization process. The US backed coups in Honduras and Paraguay.Then Washington turned to converting the judiciary and congress as steppingstones for launching a political attack on the strategic regimes in Argentinaand Brazil and turning secondary regimes in Ecuador, Chile, Peru and ElSalvador into the US orbit.

美国首先攻击了非殖民化进程中的“最薄弱环节”。美国支持洪都拉斯和巴拉圭政变。然后华盛顿转而将司法和国会皈依为跳板,对阿根廷和巴西政权发起政治攻击,并将厄瓜多尔、智利、秘鲁和萨尔瓦多的次要政权纳入美国阵营。

As the recolonization process advanced,the US regained its dominance in regional and international organizations. Thecolonized regimes privatized their economies and Washington secured regimeswilling to assume onerous debts, previously repudiated.

随着再殖民进程推进,美国重新在地区和国际组织中占据主导地位。殖民政权将其经济私有化,而华盛顿则确保了那些愿意承担沉重债务的政权存在,而这些债务此前都被拒绝偿还。

The US advances in recolonization lookedtoward targeting the oil rich, dynamic and formidable anti-colonial governmentin Venezuela.
Venezuela was targeted for severalstrategic reasons.

美国在石油再殖民方面取得的进展,希望瞄准石油资源丰富、充满活力且强大的委内瑞拉反殖民政府。
委内瑞拉成为攻击目标有几个战略原因。

First, Venezuela under President Chavezopposed US regional and global colonial ambitions.

首先,查韦斯总统领导下的委内瑞拉旗帜鲜明反对美国的地区和全球殖民野心。

Secondly, Caracas provided financialresources to bolster and promote anti-colonial regimes throughout Latin Americaespecially in the Caribbean and Central America.

第二,加拉加斯提供财政资源,支持和促进整个拉丁美洲,特别是加勒比和中美洲的反殖民政权。



Washington was unable to pressure andsecure the backing of the mass of the population or the military.

华盛顿无法向广大民众或军方施加压力,确保他们反抗政府。

Coup techniques, successful in imposingcolonial regimes elsewhere, failed.
The US turned to a multi-prong,continent-wide, covert and overt military, political, economic and culturalwar.

在其他地方成功实施殖民政权的政变手段失败了。
美国转向一场多管齐下、横跨整个大陆、或隐蔽或公开的军事、政治、经济和文化战争。

The White House appointed Juan Guaido, avirtual unknown, as ‘interim President’. Guaido was elected to Congress with25% of the vote in his home district. Washington spent millions of dollars inpromoting Guaido and funding NGOs and self-styled human rights organization toslander the Venezuelan government and launch violent attacks on the securityforces.

白宫任命胡安·瓜伊多为“临时总统”。 瓜伊多在他的家乡地区以25%的选票当选为国会议员?;⒍倩耸偻蛎涝弦炼?,资助非政府组织和自封的人权组织诽谤委内瑞拉政府,并对安全部队发动暴力袭击。

The White House rounded up itsrecolonized regimes in the region to recognize Guaido as the ‘legitimatePresident’.

白宫支持该地区重新殖民的政权,承认瓜岛为“合法总统”。

Washington recruited several leadingEuropean Union countries, especially the UK, France and Germany to isolateVenezuela.

华盛顿联合几个主要的欧盟国家,尤其是英国、法国和德国来孤立委内瑞拉。

The US sought to penetrate and subvertthe Venezuelan populace via so-called humanitarian aid, refusing to workthrough the Red Cross and other independent organizations.

美国试图通过所谓的人道主义援助渗透和颠覆委内瑞拉民众,拒绝通过红十字会和其他独立组织开展工作。

The White House fixed the weekend of Feb.23 – 24 as the moment to oust President Maduro. It was a total, unmitigatedfailure, putting the lie to all of Washington’s fabrications.

白宫将2月23日至24日的周末定为罢免总统马杜罗的时候。这是一次彻头彻尾的失败,华盛顿的所有谎言被揭穿。



The recolonized Lima Group passed hostileresolutions and re-anointed Trump’s President Guaido, but few voters in theregion took their pronouncements serious.

推进重新殖民的利马集团通过了决议,重新任命特朗普支持的瓜伊多为总统,但该地区很少有选民认真对待他们的声明。

Conclusion

结论

What are the colonized states expected toserve? Why has the White House failed to recolonize Venezuela as it did in therest of Latin America?

殖民地国家的命运是什么?为什么白宫没能像在拉丁美洲其他国家那样重新扳倒委内瑞拉?

The recolonized states in Latin Americaserve to open their markets to US investors on easy terms, with low taxes andsocial and labor costs, and political and economic stability based onrepression of popular class and national struggles.

重新被殖民的拉美国家向美国投资者以宽松条件开放市场,降低税收,压低社会成本和劳动力成本,将政治经济稳定建立在压制民众阶级和民族斗争的基础上。

Colonized regimes are expected to supportUS boycotts, coups and invasions and to supply military troops as ordered.

预计殖民政权将支持美国的抵制、政变和入侵,并按命令提供军队。

Colonized regimes take the US side ininternational conflicts and negotiations; in regional organizations they votewith the US and meet debt payments on time and in full.

殖民政权在国际冲突和谈判中站在美国一边;在地区组织中,他们与美国一起投票按时足额偿还债务。

The recolonized nations ensure favorableresults for Washington by manipulating elections and judicial decisions and byexcluding anti-colonial candidates and officials and arresting politicalactivists.

重新被殖民的国家通过操纵选举和司法决定,排除反殖民的候选人和官员,逮捕政治活动人士,确保了华盛顿获得有利的结果。

The colonized regimes anticipate theneeds and demands of Washington and introduce resolutions on their behalf inregional organizations.

殖民地政权预料到华盛顿的需要,并代表它们在各区域组织中提出决议。

In the case of Venezuela, they promoteand organize regional bloc like the Lima Group to promote US led intervention.

就委内瑞拉而言,他们推动并组织了利马集团这样的地区性集团以推动美国主导的干预行动。

As Washington proceeds to destabilizeVenezuela the colonized allies recycle US mass media propaganda and offer sanctuariesfor opposition defectors and refugees.

随着华盛顿方面继续破坏委内瑞拉稳定,这些殖民盟国利用美国的大众媒体宣传,为反对派叛逃者和难民提供避难所。

In sum the recolonized elites facilitatedomestic plunder and overseas conquests.

总之,重新殖民的精英促进了国内掠夺和海外征服。

Venezuela success in resisting anddefeating the US drive for reconquest is the result of nationalist andsocialist leaders who re-allocate private wealth and re-distribute publicexpenditures to the workers, peasants and the unemployed.

委内瑞拉成功抵制并击败了美国的再征服企图,是民族主义和社会主义领导人重新分配私人财富、将公共支出重新分配给工人、农民和失业者的结果。



The failure of the imperialist ultra’s inWashington to defeat Venezuela can set in motion a new wave of decolonizationstruggles which can force the US to look inward and downward – in order todecolonize its own electorate.

帝国主义极端分子在华盛顿击败委内瑞拉一事上的失败,可能引发新一轮去殖民斗争,迫使美国向内和向下看——以实现本国选民的去殖民化。